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20 amazing facts about scotland | scotland facts on your hands.

Scotland experienced the Great Depression in 1922, long before the Great Depression.

 Scotland has been part of England for centuries. However, the country and its people remain a unique culture in itself. A future may come when Scotland is no longer part of another country and is completely independent. Find out about its rich culture and history with these 40 Scottish facts.

1. The name Scotland has its own history.

It dates from the Scots, the Latin name for Gaelic, ancestors of the modern Scots and Irish. It later became the Latin name for Ireland, and Scotland, but was applied to the English countries north of Forth in the 11th century. Scotland at the time also included land that would later become part of the Principality of Albany. However, the Scottish Union could never be dissolved. Because in Old English Scotland is also referred to as Ireland. Scotland later became Scotland in the late Middle Ages and refers to all of modern Scotland.

2. The climate depends on the location.

Scotland generally has a temperate climate but is influenced by its location near the Atlantic Gulf Stream. As a result, Scottish winters are mild and summers are wetter than in other parts of England or Europe as a whole. It also guarantees that the west of Scotland will receive more rain than the east of Scotland. The west of Scotland receives an average of over 3 meters of rainfall per year. On the other hand, the east of Scotland is expected to receive up to 800 millimetres of rainfall per year. Also, in the Highlands Scot's snow an average of up to 59 days, with a lot of snow each year. However, low-lying areas receive an average of 10 days of snow a year.

3. Scotland has a unique geography.

All of Scotland was covered in ice during the last ice age, leaving its mark on local geography. These include deep and narrow valleys and numerous freshwater lakes. The highlands and islands themselves formed between 490 and 390 million years ago when volcanic activity formed today’s rocks. In particular, Arthur’s Place in Edinburgh is home to one of Scotland’s most extinct volcanoes. The region, especially the Moray Firth region, has produced many fossils dating back 460 million years.

4. Scotland also retains its own national identity.

Despite being part of England for centuries, Scots and Scots continue to be distinct from the British. In addition to mother tongues such as Scottish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic, there are also distinct versions of Scottish English. They also preserve the traditional and historical structures of the clans and various symbols representing Scotland. These include Saltire, the traditional Scottish flag, which has a white St. Andrew’s cross on a blue background and is part of the British flag today. Other symbols include the thistle, the traditional Scottish flower and the unicorn, a traditional Scottish heraldic symbol dating back to the 12th century.

5. It also has excellent biodiversity.

Brown bears, elk, lynx, walruses and wolves once lived in Scotland, but have disappeared due to human activity. However, seals still live in Scotland and are legally protected. Due to its reputation as one of Scotland’s national icons, the golden eagle enjoys a similar status. Other animals that live in Scotland today include rabbits, pterosaurs, ospreys and sea eagles. The only animal and vertebrate in the British Isles, the Scottish hybrid still lives in Scotland. Scotland also has a variety of flora, from native Scottish pine to the 5,000-year-old Fortingall yew, the oldest living creature in Europe. Talk about other historical cases than the Scottish facts.

6. The Romans fought even for a small part of Scotland.

Rome first invaded England in 55 BC. and arrived in Scotland in 79 AD. The Gaels took advantage of the Scottish Highlands and retained them for decades, while the Romans struggled to supply their troops. For this reason, Emperor Hadrian built Hadrian’s Wall in 122 AD. It stretched from shore to shore along the island and cut across Roman Britain from Scotland to the north. That being said, the Romans continued to make small attempts to expand into Scotland later. Emperor Antoninus Pius conquered southern Scotland and, like Hadrian, built his own wall, the Antoninus Wall, to protect his conquest in 142 AD. A small part of Roman-conquered Scotland also contributed to the introduction of Christianity in Scotland.

7. England and Scotland have been at war with each other for centuries.

It dates back to the 12th century when Scotland first emerged as an independent state. However, by then many British had settled in Scotland, and the Kingdom of England saw Scotland as a potential competitor. This prompted the British to ask the Scots, but the Scots refused. England briefly subjugated Scotland in the 13th century after the death of Alexander III. However, King John Baliol later rejected British suzerainty, despite starting out as a British puppet. This later led to an alliance between Scotland and England’s rival, France, and the Scottish War of Independence. England gained independence from Scotland in 1320, but wars broke out regularly until the 16th century.

8. It took more than 100 years for them to become one.

Until the seventeenth century, England and Scotland allied themselves against Roman Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation. Scotland entered the Commonwealth of England during the English Civil War but regained its independence after the Restoration. The proposal for an Anglo-Scottish coalition met with persistent opposition in the Scottish Parliament. In particular, England’s insistence on a unified parliament, rather than maintaining a separate Scottish parliament, has been a constant obstacle to unification. However, the Treaty of Confederation of 1706 eventually led to an agreement between England and Scotland, which formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

9. Scotland became popular in the 19th century.

In the 19th century, Scottish shipyards took the lead in replacing British merchant ships with iron steam. In fact, in the 19th century, Scotland produced some of the best and brightest ships in the world at the time. In science, Scotland has produced figures such as James Maxwell, who pioneered the study of electromagnetism, and Lord Kelvin, who gave his name to the Kelvin scale. James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine, was born in Scotland in the 19th century. Scotland also produced the four-term British Prime Minister William Gladstone and Archibald Primrose, who ruled England during the Boer Wars.

10. Scotland’s economy began to decline in the second half of the twentieth century.

Scotland experienced the Great Depression in 1922, long before the Great Depression. Ironically, the recovery began in 1929, but in October of that year, the New York Stock Exchange collapsed, triggering the Great Depression. World War II brought economic reconstruction to meet wartime requirements but ended with the war. After 1945, the Scottish economy continued to decline due to foreign competition and outdated industry. It was not until the 1960s that the discovery and exploitation of oil and gas in the North Sea stopped the decline of the Scottish economy. However, Margaret Thatcher’s services and finance policies had an impact on the Scottish economy in the 1980s.

11. They took an active part in World War II.

About 500,000 soldiers were sent to World War I in Scotland alone, of whom about 100,000 were killed and 150,000 wounded. Marshal Sir Douglas Hague, who commanded British forces on the Western Front in World War I, was of Scottish descent. Scpa Flow was also an important base for the Royal Navy, where the German fleet sank after the war without surrendering. Later, during World War II, Scotland became a major target for German attacks on factories, mines and shipyards. Ships in Scotland helped fight German submarines in both wars and helped Norway withstand German occupation in World War II.

12. At the same time, Scotland began to leave England.

Thatcher’s decision to close mines and factories in Scotland provoked widespread poverty and outrage in Scotland. This led to more support for local government in Scotland, resulting in the Scottish Act of 1998. This re-established the Scottish Parliament, but Scotland’s independence movement continued. They eventually won a majority in the Scottish Parliament in 2011, and Alex Salmond became prime minister. Then, in 2014, there was an independence referendum, with 55% of Scots voting against it. Following the 2019 Brexit referendum, Scottish nationalists called for a new referendum on Scottish independence.

13. Fishing is one of the most important sectors of the Scottish economy.

Scotland catches about 60% of all fish caught in British waters. Cod and albino, which account for 40% of the fish caught, are worth a total of £ 55 million. However, the main fish caught by Scottish fishermen is a scampy £ 38.5 million. Other catches include herring and mackerel, worth a total of 99 million pounds.

However, fishing in Scotland is controversial due to European Union (EU) regulations. Fishermen, in particular, have to limit their fishing under EU restrictions because it affects their only livelihood.

14. Today, Scotland has a strong health system.

Scotland has its own National Health Service (NHS), set up in 1947 to replace the former Highland and Islands Health Service. NHS Scotland divides the country into health departments to improve service management. Today, NHS Scotland has around 158,000 employees, including over 47,000 nurses. Other specialists include counsellors, dentists, midwives and opticians. NHS Scotland has over 12,000 GPs with a variety of independent contractors. As of 2010, NHS Scotland no longer charges fees and refunds, and prescriptions are entirely free. However, professionals, such as dentists and opticians, may receive more than the annual limit from patients.

15. Scotland is also rich in natural resources.

With oil and gas from the North Sea and the once fertile coal fields of Scotland, the economy flourished in the 19th century. Unfortunately, these funds were depleted in the 20th century, contributing to Scotland’s economic decline. Longannet’s last coal mine in Forth, Scotland, closed in 2016. However, there are still many mines in Scotland that produce resources such as iron ore and zinc.

16. However, whiskey is Scotland’s most famous export.

The history of Scotch whiskey dates back to the 15th century, but it was not until the 18th century that large-scale exports began. Today, 25% of UK export imports come from Scotch, valued at £ 4.25 billion a year, or Scotch whiskey from the United States. Whiskey production is also one of the top five producers in the UK, with over 35,000 employees. Whiskey production is mainly concentrated around Speyside and Islay Island, with eight distilleries between them. The whiskey industry is also linked to the tourism industry, generating another £ 30 million a year. There are a total of over 100 breweries in the UK with strict quality control regulations. For example, all whiskey, whether exported or not, must contain 40% alcohol.

17. COVID-19 has affected the Scottish economy.

At the end of 2020, the unemployment rate increased by about 8% as a direct result of the coronavirus pandemic. Scotland’s total economic output fell by about 10%, with tourism particularly affected. In fact, since March 2021, when travel restrictions have finally been relaxed, about 70% of Scottish businesses serving tourists have suffered significant financial losses. This prompted the government to launch a £ 25 million recovery program to help the tourism industry. Other losses due to the pandemic include food and beverage exports, with the whiskey industry alone losing nearly £ 1 billion in sales. This is the result of a 32% decrease in exports to the USA and a 70% decrease in global exports. Analysts have called it the biggest drop in Scottish exports in more than a decade.

18. Scotland has many important British military bases.

Between 1960 and 1991, the United States maintained a fleet of nuclear-powered missile submarines at Holly Locke, Scotland. The United Kingdom also maintained a 1963 nuclear missile submarine at Holy Locke. Today, the United Kingdom has a nuclear missile submarine at Gar Loch, Scotland. This has previously provoked protests from anti-nuclear activists, but the government has withdrawn the move.

The Royal Air Force (RAF) also has an air base in Scotland, the northernmost part of the United Kingdom. The Moray base is home to three squadrons of Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft that can counter enemy attacks across the North Sea in minutes.

19. Scotland is famous for its musical traditions.

A common stereotype in Scotland is that men in a kilt, the traditional Scottish outfit, play drinking games. Unlike other stereotypes, this is not really considered an insult, as the Scots are proud to wear a kilt and play. By the way, there are other instruments in traditional Scottish music. These include the type of Scottish harp, clarinet and violin and accordion.

20. Scottish cuisine has a similar reputation.

Haggis is the most famous Scottish food in the world like Haggis when it comes to Scottish culture. Put the lamb heart, liver and lungs on top, and add oats, onions, salt, broth and spices. They are then cooked together before serving a large sausage. This dish is so popular in Scotland that even fast food restaurants fry it in oil. It can also be sliced ​​instead of fish and chips or used as a bun on a burger. Some Scottish pizza has haggis as a topping.

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